How Is Heart Rate Controlled Gcse

The heart rate is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SA node) which is a small group of cells in the right atrium of the heart. The SA node produces electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract.

The heart rate is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SA node) which is a small group of cells in the right atrium of the heart. The SA node produces electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract.

The electrical impulses from the SA node travel through the atrioventricular node (AV node) to the ventricles. The AV node is a small group of cells in the center of the heart that delay the impulses briefly before sending them to the ventricles.

The delay at the AV node gives the atria enough time to contract and pump blood into the ventricles before they contract. The impulses then travel through the bundle of His and the Purkinje fibers to the ventricles.

The heart rate is also influenced by hormones such as adrenaline that are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. Adrenaline increases the heart rate by causing the SA node to fire more rapidly.

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The heart rate can also be affected by diseases and medications. Diseases that affect the heart or the nervous system can cause the heart rate to be too fast or too slow. Medications that affect the heart rate include beta blockers which slow the heart rate and digitalis which can cause the heart rate to be too fast.

What is the heart rate?

The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute.

What factors can affect the heart rate?

Factors that can affect the heart rate include physical activity emotions medications and temperature.

How is the heart rate controlled?

The heart rate is controlled by the autonomic nervous system which is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

What is the sympathetic nervous system?

The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “fight or flight” response.

It increases heart rate and blood pressure.

What is the parasympathetic nervous system?

The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “rest and digest” response.

It decreases heart rate and blood pressure.

How does physical activity affect heart rate?

Physical activity increases heart rate.

How do emotions affect heart rate?

Emotions can affect heart rate in different ways.

For example anger and fear can increase heart rate while sadness and relaxation can decrease heart rate.

How do medications affect heart rate?

Medications can affect heart rate in different ways.

For example beta blockers slow down the heart rate while adrenaline speeds it up.

How does temperature affect heart rate?

Temperature can affect heart rate in different ways.

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For example extreme heat or cold can increase heart rate while moderate temperatures can decrease it.

What is the normal range for heart rate?

The normal range for heart rate is 60-100 beats per minute.

What is tachycardia?

Tachycardia is a heart rate that is greater than 100 beats per minute.

What is bradycardia?

Bradycardia is a heart rate that is less than 60 beats per minute.

What are the symptoms of tachycardia?

The symptoms of tachycardia can include palpitations shortness of breath chest pain and lightheadedness.

What are the symptoms of bradycardia?

The symptoms of bradycardia can include fatigue dizziness and fainting.

What are the treatment options for tachycardia?

The treatment options for tachycardia can include medication cardioversion and pacemaker.

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